Published articles

  1. Evaluation of postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale in evaluation of postpartum depression in a rural community in India
    Published in: International Journal of Social Psychiatry (1999) Vol. 46 No. 1 (74-75)
    Our findings suggested that several factors peculiar to our setting diminish the acceptability of an EPDS-like approach. An alternative approach to elicit the relevant symptoms could be an open-ended discussion centred around their family, with probes at appropriate junctures regarding negative feeling states and ability to function adequately in the new role.
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  1. Telepsychiatry in integrated care: A retrospective comparative study from Uttar Pradesh. (lands in mansik soundarya story page)
    Publication under process

    Lack of affordable and accessible mental health care is a major contributor to a huge burden of mental health disorders in India. Integrating mental health into primary care is a model proposed to address this treatment gap. Tele-psychiatry can be a cost-effective modality to achieve the goal of integration.
    We compared the efficacy of ‘Integrated Tele-Mental Health’ with that of face-to-face interventions through Mobile Medical Units (MMU). We then compared the outcomes of physicians of various levels of expertise in mental health care.
    The use of integrated tele-mental health was shown to be an effective model in reducing the treatment gap and empowering the primary care physicians in delivering mental health care. With adequate training, physicians can be at par with mental health professionals for screening for mental health disorders. Given the scalable nature of the technology, there are enormous potential in its usage to address the lack of accessible mental health care.
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  1. The Role of Belief Systems and Shared Culture on Mental Health (lands in mansik soundarya story page)
    Published in Int J Contemporary Medicine (2018) Vol. 6 No. 1 (128-30)
    This paper posits that the lived beliefs arising from the concept of the mythical Kashi can explain the adaptive social behaviors and support systems of the residents of modern-day Varanasi. Based on the cultural and mythological beliefs of the residents, the researcher points out that the individual sees himself and his city as a whole and not as a sum of its parts. The sense of community and the understanding of the concept of fun make the individuals more resilient and adept to cope with most situations. Every individual based on their understanding of their culture, has a sense of purpose, and can identify with the shared beliefs of any other individual of that community.
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  1. Models of Psychiatry: Science and Mythology of understanding mental disorder. lands in mansik soundarya story page)

Published in Int J Contemporary Medicine (2018) Vol. 6 No. 1 (131-32)
This article explores the concept of ‘truth’ as understood in scientific disciplines, and the implications it has on the evolution of the understanding of the mind and the brain. It draws parallels between the ways of understanding mythology and the way that models are used in psychiatry. It discusses the possibility of studying mythology that is lived in today’s world as a means of furthering our understanding of psychiatric models.
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  1. Mental health impact of the COVID -19 pandemic on reverse migrant workers in Uttarakhand – A cross-sectional study lands in camp kumaon story page)

Accepted for publication in the Indian Journal of Social Psychology

The announcement of a nationwide lockdown in India in March 2020 in response to the CoVID-19 pandemic led to an exodus of migrant workers back to their homes. With the passage of several months, these reverse migrants eventually reached their homes and re-entered their own communities.
In our 5 villages too, around 500 young men returned from the cities as reverse migrants. This study assessed the impact of the later phase of the CoVID-19 pandemic and lockdown on these reverse migrants, and compared this impact with the local residents, who have never migrated.
Our results were different from what the literature on the subject suggested but did not surprise us.
No significant depression or anxiety was found in the reverse migrants group. These findings can be attributed to factors such as social support from the community members, engagement in work and the use of approach-based coping mechanisms.
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Reports and Reviews

  1. Study of School Counselling Services in Delhi Government Schools with United Nations Population Fund, (UNFPA), India.
    Download Full text: UNFPA

In the academic year 2015-2016, the UNFPA commissioned Manas Foundation to undertake a ‘Study of School Counselling Services’ in Delhi Government Schools. Manas carried out an in-depth qualitative study of the current status of the counselling mechanism as understood from the perspectives of all the stakeholders involved: counsellors, students, principals and teachers, as well as the Directors of the State Council of Educational Research and Training (SCERT) and the EVGC Bureau as heads of the relevant overseeing bodies. Read more..

  1. Action research on the mental health issues of urban disadvantaged youth
    The research aimed at Mapping the happiness barometers of youth i.e., their levels of hope, aspirations, enthusiasm, and ambition, on a specially constructed scale. The sample comprised of 500 youth from 10 different NGOs all over Delhi NCR.
    The study identified their unique psychological enablers and barriers to positive identity and leadership building. It analysed the discrimination and stigma experienced in public spaces and its repercussion on their mental health. It also outlined the co-relation between identity, self-concept, mental health, gender, well-being, and leadership. It proposed mechanisms for strengthening the capacities of urban disadvantaged youth for coping with, and responding to, stigma and discrimination, both in their external and internal worlds.
    Full text: Mind map

3. State of mental health in Delhi: Prevalence of psychiatric morbidity, subjective wellbeing, and patterns of help-seeking behavior among the general population of Delhi.

This landmark study was conducted by Manas on behalf of The Planning Commission of India and is now authoritative source material for a variety of Delhi-centric programs and studies. It was supported by the Socio – Economic Research division.

In this study, our aim was to understand the mental health status and sense of wellbeing amongst the
general population in Delhi. Our focus was to identify the level of psychological distress faced by the
general population as well as to have some indicators of the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the
city and their health seeking behaviour.

The research studied responses of 2381 participants and it indicated high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity (7.6%) and poor subjective wellbeing. Health seeking behaviour was found to be limited as very few people seek professional help when it comes to mental health. The level of awareness regarding mental health was also found to be considerably low.
Full text: npc

  1. Pehchan Training Curriculum: MSM, Transgender and Hijra Community systems strengthening.
    Mental Health Module: by Ms Monica Kumar, Manas Foundation.
    Among the high-risk groups for HIV-AIDS are men who have sex with men (MSM), transgenders (TG), and hijras (MTH). The vulnerability of MTH persons to HIV is amplified by social marginalisation, discrimination, and poor access to health services. Many civil society partners lack adequate expertise or capacity to work with MTH populations. Community-based organisations (CBOs) can be effective in reaching their peers with prevention and other HIV[1]related services.
    The Mental Health Module (C3) was developed to build the knowledge and skills of community volunteers, counsellors and outreach workers of NGOs and CBOs who work directly with MTH communities. It was designed to help training participants: 1) become familiar with basic concepts of counselling; 2) develop skills to form a support relationship with a programme client within an ethical framework; 3) increase awareness of common mental health concerns among men who have sex with men (MSM), transgenders and hijras; 4) build capacity to assess and provide basic psycho-social support; and 5) promote positive mental health.
    Full text: pehchan training curriculum

5. Sustainable community mental health services: a description and review of an integrated care model in Uttar Pradesh, India lands in mansik soundarya story page)

This paper describes a sustainable community mental health program delivering services integrated with primary health care in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Mental health services were integrated into the community-based primary health programs of Ramakrishna Mission, Varanasi (RKM) as part of the Jan Man Swasthya Program (JMSP) in 2013. The program was delivered with JMSP support for three and a half years till June 2017, when funding ended. From then onwards, mental health services continue to be delivered till date in a sustainable manner.
Over a two-year sustained period studied in this paper, the program demonstrated sustained benefits to clients, as well as program fidelity and adaptation. The organizational ethos, leadership and continuity of the team, the good fit between the program and the organizations’ mission, and the institutionalization of training and funding were identified as key contributors to the program’s sustainability. This experience can contribute towards attaining similar outcomes both in new community mental health programs, as well as in the public NMHP.
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Ongoing research

  1. Why the willingness to return to the city? A study from Uttarakhand on ‘Reversal of Reverse Migration.’
    Submitted for publication.

Migration has been a pattern in the hills of Uttarakhand for decades. This region has seen men migrating to the cities in order to earn a livelihood for them and their families, but the pandemic forced them to reverse migrate to their homes.
A year into the pandemic and deteriorating finances, the reverse migration was reversing in Kumaon, Uttarakhand. This study included a semi structured interview with men from our previous study who moved back to cities in search of jobs.
An analysis of the interview showed that despite having a social and financial security at their homes these men move back to cities for only one reason: EMPLOYMENT. The research also highlighted a few themes that focus on their lives in the city and hometown as well as how migration is the only means of survival for these men in Uttarakhand.

  1. Comparative study on Impact of Male Migration on Autonomy of Women in Kumaon
    Data collection ongoing

Studies on migration confirm that most of the migrants are men who migrate to cities due to rampant unemployment in search of a livelihood and those who are left behind, are women. With the onset of the pandemic, the past two years saw migration and reverse migration in these areas.
In this study we compare the impact of male migration on women of rural areas of Kumaon, a comparison done between women who had male family members who migrated with those women who didn’t. Through a preliminary questionnaire we have identified those women who have had male migration from their families in Kumaon. As we move ahead, we aim to map women’s autonomy via studying variables like internalized misogyny, their quality life and self-financial efficacy to gauge the same.

  1. A study of long-term mental health outcomes among people infected with coronavirus 6-12 months ago.
    Data collection ongoing

The research aims to study the long-term impact of being infected with coronavirus on different mental health parameters, and to study the type of coping used by those who were infected with coronavirus.

  1. Case control study comparing mental health status of people with and without coronavirus in Dausa.
    Data collection ongoing The aim is to study the current mental health of those infected with coronavirus, and to compare current mental health among those infected with coronavirus versus those who are not infected. The type of coping used by the two groups will also be compared.
  2. EVALUATING EXISTING SYSTEMIC CAPACITY AND NEED OF PSYCHOSOCIAL CARE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS IN CONFLICT SITUATIONS.
    WITH FOCUS ON ESTABLISHING ROBUST, SUSTAINABLE PSYCHOSOCIAL SUPPORT SYSTEMS WHILE INCORPORATING GENDER NUANCES.

Data collection ongoing

Data collection ongoing
The research is being conducted in four districts of Chhattisgarh (Kanker, Narayanpur, Dantewada, Sukma). The objective of the study is to understand the existing systems in place that work with children affected by violence and evaluate the need for psychosocial care while including a gender lens.
Various stakeholders working with children such as superintendents of hostels, teachers, doctors/nurses working in the district hospital, officials from the tribal welfare department, and representatives from the district management will be interviewed. Using a mixed-methodology approach, a questionnaire has been developed and translated into Hindi.
Findings from the study will help direct and focus the work done by Manas Foundation in Chhattisgarh, ensuring that fundamental psychosocial needs of the children are fulfilled.

Belief systems and socio-cultural correlates of persons visiting Mehendipur Balaji temple, Rajasthan: A mental health perspective.
Data collection ongoing
The CAMP Dausa mental health team provides mental health in the vicinity of this famous temple. We have developed a culturally sensitive approach of interviewing the persons visiting this temple. This interview has been developed after a thorough study of the beliefs and practices associated with the temple, and a pilot study to refine the questionnaire.
This study will be a part of our larger mental health intervention program at Mehendipur Balaji, which is being planned for 2021 in collaboration with the NMHP and CMO Office.

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